Science & Research

The Science Behind TruMarine™

As a global innovator, Nippi continually strives to improve and position itself as a leader in natural, bioactive peptides. Collagen has long been used all over the world in foods, cosmetics, personal care and medicine and offers tremendous growth potential overall. Alongside a multitude of research studies on skin, joint and bone health benefits, investigation is continuing in many therapeutic health areas and is evolving every day. Clinical research for collagen is ongoing in digestive, immune and cardiovascular health benefits. Additionally, applications for muscle loss and tone, sports, inflammation and a range of anti-aging benefits continue to spawn a flurry of ongoing research into these exciting areas on the effects of ingesting collagen peptides.

The Future of Collagen

At Nippi, we believe that true success in business happens only when everyone’s interests are in alignment. Our philosophy is simple and transparent: Nippi believes that reporting and sharing the scientific support around collagen is key to spreading the health benefits of collagen and clinical research surrounding collagen.

Research advancements have accumulated evidence for the essential role of collagen in the health of our skin, joints, bones, connective tissues and blood vessels. Collagen holds great promise as a key ingredient applicable to a wide spectrum of heath benefits and applications ranging from optimal aging and mitigating degenerative processes to protein fortification and weight management.

Nippi Collagen is also at the forefront of new research on TruMarine™ Collagen. Nippi works in tandem with the Research Institute of BioMatrix, and their prolific research into the vast potential of marine collagen has yielded a flurry of novel application opportunities spanning the dietary supplement, functional food and beverage, medical and cosmetic industries. Nippi continues to lead the world in the study of marine collagen peptides. The studies listed below were selected from hundreds of references to give evidence of the wide range of published investigations and clinical research on collagen that can be found.

Skin Health

Collagen is a key component for radiant, healthy skin, and maintaining the integrity of the extracellular matrix is essential for a youthful skin appearance. Collagen is one of the most important structural substances in our bodies, accounting for 25% to 30% of our bodies’ total protein and 75% of our skin. Marine collagen peptides have been shown to effectively penetrate the stratum corneum to the epidermis and dermis, contribute to the activation of fibroblasts and accelerate collagen synthesis. Collagen peptides can have a profound effect on the biological regulation of the skin and have been shown to boost new collagen production. Skin health benefits

Science Review

Hayamizu K, et al. Effect of the collagen peptide drinks on the elastic properties of facial skin in normal volunteers. J New Rem Clin, Japan. 2000;49(9):867–873.

Koyama Y. Effects of collagen peptide ingestion on the skin. Shokuhin-To-Kaihatsu. 2009;44:10–12 (in Japanese).

Koyama Y, et al. Effects of oral ingestion of collagen peptide on the skin. Nippi Research Institute BioMatrix, Japan, 2006.

Kuroda K, Utani A, Hamasaki Y, Shinkai H. Up-regulation of putative hyaluronan synthase mRNA by basic fibroblast growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 in human skin fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci. 2001;26:156–160.

Laskin DL, Kimura T, Sakakibara S, Riley DJ, Berg RA. Chemotactic activity of collagen-like polypeptides for human peripheral blood neutrophils. J Luekocyte Biol. 1986;39:255–266.

Matsuda N, et al. Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2006;52:211–215.

Matsumoto H, Ohara H, Ito K, Nakamura Y, Takahashi S. Clinical effects of fish type I collagen hydrolysate on skin properties. ITE Letters. 2006;7:386–390.

Morganti P, et al. Oral treatment of skin dryness. Cosmet Toilet. 1988;103:77–80.

Palmer H, Maher VM, McCormik JJ. Platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor induce anchorage-independent growth of human fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol. 1988;137:588–592.

Postlethwaite AE, Kang A. Collagen and collagen peptide-induced chemotaxis of human blood monocytes. J Exp Med. 1976;143:1299–1307.

Postlethwaite AE, Seyer JM, Kang AH. Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1978;75:871–875.

Rosenberg S, et al. Further studies in the use of gelatin in the treatment of brittle nails. Arch Dermat & Syph. 1957;76:330–335.

Ruehl M, Somasundaram R, Schoenfelder I, et al. The epithelial mitogen keratinocyte growth factor binds to collagens via the consensus sequence glycine-proline-hydroxyproline. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26872–26878.

Scala J, et al. Effect of daily gelatine ingestion on human scalp hair. Nutr Rep Int. 1976;13:579–592.

Schwimmer M, Mulinos MG. Salutary effects of gelatin on nail defects in normal subjects. Antibiotic Med Clin Ther. 1957;4:403–407.

Shigemura Y, et al. Effect of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a food-derived collagen peptide in human blood, on growth of fibroblasts from mouse skin. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:444–449.

Shigemura Y, Sato K. Ann Meet Jap Soc Biosci Biotechnol Agrochem, 2008 (Kansai div).

Sumida E, et al. The effect of oral ingestion of collagen peptide on skin hydration and biochemical data of blood. J Nutr Food. 2004;7:1–8.

Sumida E, et al. The effect of oral ingestion of collagen peptide on skin hydration and biochemical data of blood. J Nutr Food. 2004;7:45–52.

Takahashi S. Collagen & Amino Acids Study. Meiji Seika Health & Bioscience Institute, 2008.

Tanaka M, et al. Effects of collagen peptide ingestion on UV-B induced skin damage. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:930–932.

Bone Health

Bone health is vitally important as we age. During the aging process bone health problems cause discomfort, pain and a host of other comorbidities. In the elderly particularly, the amount of daily intake of protein can be suboptimal and can contribute to osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low bone mineral density and associated with increased risk of fracture. As we age, the balance between bone resorption and formation is compromised, resulting in a net loss of bone tissues. Ingestion of collagen has been shown to stimulate osteoblast formation and help build new bone and restore bone density loss. Bone health benefits

Science Review

Koyama Y, et al. Ingestion of gelatin has differential effect on bone mineral density and body weight in protein undernutrition. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2001;47:84–86.

Mano H. Action mechanism of collagen peptide on bone, cartilage and joint. 1st Symp collagen peptide, Tokyo, Japan, 2009.

Moskowitz RW. Role of collagen hydrolysate in bone and joint disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2000;30:87–99.

Nakatani S, et al. Chondroprotective effect of the bioactive peptide prolyl-hydroxyproline in mouse cartilage in vitro and in vivo. Osteoarth Cart. 2009;17:1620–1627.

Nomura Y, et al. Increase in bone mineral density through oral administration of shark gelatin to ovariectomized rats. Nutrition. 2005;21:1120–1126.

Wu J, et al. Assessment of effectiveness of oral administration of collagen peptide on bone metabolism in growing and mature rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22:547–553.

Joint Health

A wide range of studies have established TruMarine™ Collagen’s role in promoting joint health by helping to repair joint matrix degeneration and improving long-term joint comfort and mobility. Numerous studies have linked collagen peptides to improving joint conditions. Damage over time and the degradation of cartilage are linked to the breakdown of cartilage, entirely made of chondrocyte cells. Collagen may help regulate chondrocyte differentiation and play a key role in the maintenance of established chondrocytes in cartilage. Joint health benefits

Science Review

Bello AE, Oesser S. Collagen hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Nov;22(11):2221-32.

Benito-Ruiz P, Camacho-Zambrano MM, Carrillo-Arcentales JN, et al. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of a food ingredient, collagen hydrolysate, for improving joint comfort. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 2:99-113.

Bruyère O, Zegels B, Leonori L, et al. Effect of collagen hydrolysate in articular pain: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20(3):124-30.

Clark KL, Sebastianelli W, Flechsenhar KR, et al. 24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24(5):1485-96.

Daneault A, et al. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;10:1040–8398.

Daneault A, et al. Hydrolyzed collagen contributes to osteoblast differentiation in vitro and subsequent bone health in vivo. Osteoarth Cart. 2014;22:S131.

Guillerminet F, et al. Collagen peptides improve bone metabolism and biomechanical parameters in ovariectomized mice: an in-vitro and in vivo study. Bone. 2010;46:827–834.

Guillerminet F, et al. Hydrolyzed collagen improves bone status and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized C3H/HeN mice. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(7):1909–1919.

Iwai K, et al. Identification of food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysates. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:6531–6536.

Jiang JX, et al. Collagen peptides improve knee osteoarthritis in elderly women: A 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Agro Food Ind Hi Tech. 2014;25:19–23.

Kobayashi, et al. Ingestion of collagen in the course of daily life. 63rd Ann Meet Jap Soc Nutr Food Sci, Nagasaki, Japan, 2009 (in Japanese).

Laskin DL, Kimura T, Sakakibara S, Riley DJ, Berg RA. Chemotactic activity of collagen-like polypeptides for human peripheral blood neutrophils. J Luekocyte Biol. 1986;39:255–266.

Matsuda N, et al. Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2006;52:211–215.

McAlindon TE, Nuite M, Krishnan N, et al. Change in knee osteoarthritis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen hydrolysate: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19(4):399-405.

Minaguchi J, et al. Effects of ingestion of collagen peptide on collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans in Achilles tendon. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2005;51:169–174.

Moskowiz RW. Role of collagen hydrolysate in bone and joint disease. Semin Arth Rheum. 2000;30:97–99.

Nakatani S, et al. Chondroprotective effect of the bioactive peptide prolyl-hydroxyproline in mouse articular cartilage in vitro and in vivo. Osteoarth Cart. 2009;17:1620–1627.

Postlethwaite AE, Kang A. Collagen and collagen peptide-induced chemotaxis of human blood monocytes. J Exp Med. 1976;143:1299–1307.

Postlethwaite AE, Seyer JM, Kang AH. Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1978;75:871–875.

Prockop DJ, Keiser HR, Sjoerdsma A. Gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion of hydroxyproline peptides. Lancet. 1962;2:527–528.

Intersection: Protein Enrichment, Performance Nutrition and Anti-Aging

For athletes and active consumers alike trying to maintain a healthy lifestyle, collagen plays a vital role for peak performance levels. Protein and specifically collagen peptides deliver numerous health benefits way beyond muscle building. These include improving performance, supporting healthy joint and connective tissues and preserving muscle.

With their unique amino acid profile, TruMarine™ Collagen peptides contain high levels of the amino acids glycine, hydroxyproline and proline, providing nutritional benefits not found in other protein sources. As a bioactive protein, TruMarine can help maintain the nitrogen balance and protect lean body mass. Protein enrichment benefits

Science Review

Adibi SA. Regulation of expression of the intestinal oligopeptide transporter (Pept-1) in health and disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G779–G788.

Greenwel P, Hu W, Kohanski RA, Ramirez F. Tyrosine dephosphorylation of nuclear proteins mimics transforming growth factor b1 stimulation of a2(I) collagen gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6813–6819.

Hays NP, Kim H, Wells AM, Kajkenova O, Evans WJ. Effects of whey and fortified collagen hydrolysate protein supplements on nitrogen balance and body composition in older women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jun;109(6):1082–7.

Kuroda K, Utani A, Hamasaki Y, Shinkai H. Platelet GpVI and mediates platelet activation by collagen. Cardiovascular Res. 1999;41:450–457.

TruMarine’s efficacy is demonstrated in scientific studies.
Contact us for more information on TruMarine™ clinical studies.